This is the Book KhandanaKhandanaKhadya with translation and commentary.
If you are not able to view the Devanagari, please download sanskrit99 font. And Devanagari is not done completely for the entire book, the first word of the paragraph beginning will be given, follow it with a book.
I have not done the proof-reading too 🙂
KhandanaKhandaKhadya is the highest order of text studied in the philosophy of non-dualism. It forms the triad of AdvaitaSiddhi by Sri Madhusudana Saradwati, Chitsukhi by Sri Chitsukha Muni and finally the text at hand. This is one of the finest treatises which can be given as an example for the logical thinking. Though this may not be the original idea in this line of thought, there were other texts like the tattva-upaplava-simha of Charvaka system, or some texts in the Buddhists school. Nevertheless this is conceived in a proper way and the logic is mind boggling, the least to say.
The Author : the author of this text is Sri SriHarsha (the second Sri is part of his name, distinguished form the first which is for respect), was born to Sri SriHira and Srimati Mamalla Devi. It is important to know the parents, atleast in this case, to better understand the man behind this text. Sri SriHira was a great man of unsurpassed knowledge, when he was visiting some King and there was a debate between a minister of the kingdom and Sri SriHira, in which Sri SriHira was defeated very badly. He wanted a son to take revenge for his loss, and was blessed with Sri SriHarsha. But still, the defeat was not taken lightly by Sri SriHira, and thus his health was affected. In deathbed he took promise from the child Sri SriHarsha to take necessary action to defeat the minister. Thus after the death of his father, Sri SriHarsha left the responsibility of managing the family to the relatives and went to Kashi (Varanasi) for studies, vowing not to return to the homeland before defeating the minister.
He was initiated in the mantra called “Chintamani”, which he meditated upon for five years. There is another story relating to the initiation – his mother wanting the son to fulfill the promise, initiated the boy in “chintamani” mantra (in tantra it is accepted if the mantra pertaining to a female deity is initiated by the mother will bear fruit (siddhi – accomplishment) very soon), after initiating the boy, she made him to sit on her body and slit her throat (some mantras are accepted to produce result if it is chanted sitting upon a corpse). Whatever may be the truth about the initiation, the final truth is he was blessed by the vision of the Goddess Chintamani Devi, who blessed Sri SriHarsha with unlimited knowledge. After this studying the different schools of philosophy was a child’s play, in a very short span of time he acquired mastery over almost all the philosophy.
There is no need to say, he defeated the minister, and it was easy too. He presented himself in front of the King and Minister and sang a song on each one of them, seeing the mastery in the poetry, the minister immediately accepted defeat even before entering into a debate.
But still, the logic he used was beyond the grasp of the common learned men, so his knowledge became a obstacle to gain the desired result. Therefore as per the advice of the deity, he practiced a penance of taking cold shower in the night and eating buffalo’s curd (yogurt). Thus he was able to write a book this simple!
Though there are many other texts written by the same other, this and another poetical text called Naishadiya-Charita still stands the test of time. Naishadiya charita is a text on the story of the king Nishada, written on the request of the King of KanyaKubja, the patron of the author. Though superfluously may sound like a poetical story, is a vedantic treatice written in the style called “dwi-sandna or dwi-arthaka” (double meaning) literature.
This text is called Khandana-Khanda-Khadya because, 1. It negates the different substances accepted by the logic school and which is easily understandable (bhakshya – eatable), 2. Because it negates the kha (space) etc. substance, 3. But the important meaning of the name is, there is medicine called khanda-khadya accepted in the ayurvedic text which improves the immune system and gives good health, destroying any type of disease.
This is also called as Anirvacaniyata-Sarvasva. Nirvacaniya means explicable, anirvacaniya means in-explicable and Sarvasva means everything. Thus it means, everything here is inexplicable, which is the basic principle of advaita Vedanta, anirvacaniya-vada.
The text is written in keeping with the cannon of the nyaya school, “maana-adhina meya siddhi, maana siddhi ca lakshanaat” (the object is dependent upon the means of right knowledge, which in turn is dependent on the definition). This is accepted by the logicians to negate the Buddhists, who negate everything from the standpoint of (shunyavada” (voidism – the basic tenet of madhyamika buddhusts). They say “na pratignaa maatrena vastusiddhi” (just by naming the object cannot be established, but by the definition and means of right knowledge). Though the logic school in general is negated, since the minister one who defeated the author’s father is Sri Udayana who is a follower of Sri Udhayanacharya’s Vaisheshika school, the author negates them both. It may also be interpreted as the anger for the very name.
Therefore, Sri SriHarsha, rattled their basic idea by negating the base for all this “lakshana” (definition). Without a definition nothing can be established. And he declares, whoever desires to win a debate if he follows this process of logic explained in this book or repeats the same lines given here, will win the debate.
This book is written in four parts, and like advaitasiddhi or other famous Vedanta text does not follow the naming convention of Brahma Sutra, which is Samanvaya, Avirodha, Saadhana and Phala (corroborating. non-contadictory, practice and result). Some opine this is loosely based on the logical school text with three chapters. But the acharya has a style of his own, which he follows-up here in the case of the chapters too. Each chapter condemns different aspect 1. Pramaana-Tadaabhasa, 2. Nigraha-Sthaana, 3. Sarvanaama-Artha and 4. Avashesha-Lakshana.
- Pramaana-Tada-Aabhasa-Anirukti – this is the biggest of the chapters, here he condemns the pramaanas (in this case as in mimamsa, 6 pramaanas only) and things related to it.
- Nigraha-sthaana-anirukti – there are different nigra-sthaanas, place which the opponent falters. Like, when he gives a wrong reply, not following his philosophy, taking a lot of time etc, if pointed out by the other causes the defeat of the opponent.
- Sarvanaama-artha-anirukti – the meaning of the pronoun, here only ‘kim’ is discussed.
- Avashesha-lakshana-anirukti – the rest of the definition is negated.
We include the Devanagari version of the Text, along with the translation in Italics and commentary in plain text.