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AdvaitaSiddhi – Lecture 2 – Part 2

Posted by on November 12, 2015

The next sloka does not correspond to any particular sloka of Nyayamritakara but is an independent one written by the revered author , in order to present the anubandha chatushtya.
Shradhadhanena munina madhusudhanena, sangriha shashtanichayang rachitatijatnat, bodhai vadivijayaya cha satwaranam,advaitasiddhiriyamastu mudha vijayanam.
This sloka presents the eligibility criteria for studying the book. It is pointed out that if one has attained a subdued ego, then this text will help him/her to gain the clarity of intellect that would enable him to get the knowledge for self-realization. However, sometimes people venture into shastras without such a subdued ego and thus start entertaining ideas like, “I have to protect the tradition”. For such people also this book is helpful as it would help them to win debates (by assimilating the logical skills demonstrated in this book).However it should be borne in mind that only the people of first type are the real persons eligible for this exercise. After this the Author gives His own identity. He is Madhusudana Saraswatiji who has studied the canonical texts of Advaita Vedanta .He further says Shraddhadhanenea ,munina. The first word portrays His submission to the Shastra and Guru. The second word shows he is a muni, that is, one who has taken to contemplation and silence ,to understand the truth of Atman. It should not be thus considered that suddenly the revered author has jumped up to the task of defending Advaita, but only after studying the Shastras in a traditional manner He has collected all His arguments from these books. So aubhdha(one who does not posses the knowledge) is the adhikari and budha(knowledge) is the vishaya.
Tatra adwaitasiddha dwaitamithyasiddhipurvakatwat dwaitamithyatmeva prathamam uppadaniyam.
The dualist school of thought accepts Ishwara, jagat and jiva all to be true i.e. sat. Thus they first have to prove that Ishwara is beyond all attachment and hatred. Then he must proceed to prove the existence of the individual Jivas and finally has to coherently argue for a real world. However for the Advaitins the job (of proving their system) is much easier. Since Advaita-brahman is pure existence-knowledge it cannot be subservient to any means of proof, but all the means of proof pre-supposes it. Thus only thing required for the Advaitin is to prove the falsity of the world. In fact , He says here that proving the falsity of the world is the first and only requirement for establishing Advaita-that is for Advaita Siddhi. Negation of darkness will bring light which is self effulgent. Negation of duality will similarly lead to Advaita. How can duality be negated ? Duality can be negated only by proving it to be illusory i.e. mithya.
Upapadanang cha swapakshasadhanparapakshanirakaranabhang bhavati
In the next sloka,the revered author states the general rule of proceeding through any debate. The simple rule of any debate is to establish the paksha and refute the parapaksha. Here the terms , paksha and parapaksha are not used in the sense Naiyaikas use them in epistemology. Paksha , here is the view establishing the siddhanta i.e. advaita and condemning dualism, while parapaksha is the view just opposite to this.

Iti tad ubhayang vadjalpavitandanamanaytamang katham ashritya sampadaniyam
This debate can be again of the three types, namely vada, jalpa, vitanda. Vada is the process of debate carried out by people who want to know the truth. Logicians maintain that in Vada the truth should be determined through the various pramanas ( means of right knowledge) and tarka (analysis) . These should be presented in the five form syllogism – panachaavayav nyaya-pratigya(stating what is to be proved), hetu(reason), udharana(example), upanaya(connecting the reason and example),nigamana(established conclusion). On the other hand,in Jalpa the main aim is not only establishing truth but also winning over the opponent (that is the debate). Nyaya sutras explicitly indicate that in a jalpa, along with the standard logical procedures adopted in Vada one can use Chala (twisting things or ideas to confuse the opponent), jati (another method), nigrahasthana (putting others in a weaker position in the debate) etc. Vitanda are carried out when the vaitandika, the person who actually carries out the viatnda has no position of his own.his only aim is to refute his opponent. The present book, Advaita Siddhi, is a vada text. This is because the author , though seems to condemn the other viewpoints,but primarily wants to teach us the nuances of Advaitic teaching. As discussed above, he does not want to just impress upon us His own ideas but rather help us in mannana.
Tatra cha vipratipattijanyasamsayasa vicharangtwat madhyasthen adou vipratipatti pradaershaniya
Vipratipatti means vibhidha pratipatti.That is doubt arising due to the existence of contradictory knowledge. If there are various possible ways of understanding any particular cognition, then a doubt would definitely arise in the thought function –vipratipati janya samsaya. Madhusudana Saraswatiji says that the sentence conveying this doubt –vipratipatti vakya- which is presented by the judge of the debate (madhyasta) is very much a part of the ongoing debate. He brings in this issue as he wants to refute the view of Nyayamritakara namely that Vipratipatti vakya should not be considered to be part of the debate.

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